1307844 Needling loom NEEDLE INDUSTRIES Ltd 18 May 1970 [23 May 1969] 26359/ 69 Heading D1R A needling loom varies the advancement imparted to the web between successive penetrations of the needle array. Where the web is advanced discontinuously this is preferably accomplished by stepwise variation of the length of a rod 10, 14, connecting eccentric 11, mounted on the crankshaft which drives the oscillating needle array, and the oscillatory arm of a pawl and ratchet or other one-way clutch which drives the take up roller. The two parts 10, 14 are connected by hinge 15. Member 18, rigid with 10, mounts cam 19, which is rotated intermittently by pawl 22 and ratchet 23 in the direction of 26. Pawl 25 prevents opposite rotation. Pawl 22 is moved by rod 24, pivotally connected to eccentric 11 at a smaller distance from axis 3 than rod 10. Hence rotation of the eccentric moves cam 19 and follower 28, which is fast with 14, thus varying the angle between rods 10 and 14, and so varying the effective length of the composite rod. Alternatively the two rods may be arranged for translatory movement (Fig. 2, not shown). Their relative movement may be effected by a pawl and ratchet mechanism. For continuous variation of the effective length, one rod may be connected to the piston rod 31, Fig. 3, and the other to cylinder 30. Pipes 38, 39, connect the two sides of piston 31 to the two sides of piston 43 in master hydraulic cylinder 37. Reciprocation of piston 43 by crank 40 causes a simple harmonic variation in the effective length of the transmission rod. Alternatively the crank is replaced by a driving cylinder (144, Fig. 4, not shown) whose piston (154) is linked to piston (143) by rod (153). Hydraulic fluid pumped by (145) through pipe (146) moves the two pistons steadily to the left, until actuating element (152) on rod (153) closes valve (148). The motion is then reversed until valve (149) is closed. A symmetrical saw-toothed variation in the effective length of the connecting rod results. The above embodiments may also be used in machines in which the web take-up roll is rotated continuously. Preferably however, the variation in the rate at which it is driven is continuously varied by connecting it to planet gears (53, Fig. 5, not shown) which mesh with sun gear (52), mounted on steadily rotating shaft (51), and toothed annulus (56), which is oscillated backwards and forwards by eccentric (59).